ISO 22000:2018 Food Safety Management Systems, HACCP, GMP
Like any other industry group, responsible food manufacturers work to maintain strict safety standards to ensure that their products can be enjoyed by all, without fear of health risks. But the food supply chains can extend across various countries with different standards, and involve many different organizations and subcontractors. Prior to reaching consumers, food production is affected by companies from feed producers and canners to truckers and retail stores. One weak link–a single ingredient or poorly operated farm–can result in unsafe food that is dangerous to consumers. This is a hazard to public health that can incur huge costs and adverse publicity for the firms in the food chain.
ISO 22000:2018 is a new International Standard, is designed to ensure safe food supply chains worldwide. ISO 22000, “Food safety management systems -Requirements for any organization in the food chain,” is intended to be compatible with the current tools for food safety management, ISO 9001:2015 and HACCP, and to extend its reach for greater diligence.
As food safety hazards can enter the food chain at any stage, ISO 22000 allows all types of companies to take part in food safety management systems certification. The organizations that produce the equipment, cleansers, additives, ingredients and packaging involved in food production are also eligible.
The ISO 22000 also extends the successful ISO 9001 quality management system standard which is widely implemented in all sectors. The developers correctly anticipated that effective food safety systems would be designed and operated within the framework of a quality management system that is ISO 9001 certified, and incorporated into the overall management activities of the organization.
ISO 22000 was published in September 2005, to provide a framework of requirements, and confirm a global approach for an international industry. The standard was developed within ISO by experts from the food industry, along with representatives of specialized international organizations. Additional cooperation came from the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which was established by the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to develop food standards.
The Codex HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is widely accepted as an essential
tool for managing food safety especially when combined with an auditable management system. In fact, ISO 22000 will make it easier for organizations worldwide to implement the Codex HACCP system for food hygiene in way that will be consistent regardless of the specific food product or the country involved.
Previously, more than 20 different national standards had arisen, creating uneven levels of food safety, adding costs and complications. The new standard was needed to curtail the costs and hardship involved in food-borne illnesses, particularly in developing countries. ISO 22000 is backed by international consensus, generating requirements for good practice on a worldwide basis.
As a certified food supplier you assure your customers that your products, ingredients and equipment meet agreed-upon standards, saving the sales department time and resources. These transactions go more smoothly because your reputation for performance has already been established by your registration through an accredited registrar. In addition, you gain:
• Increased customer satisfaction
• Ongoing operational improvements
• Fewer errors and lower return rates
• Greater productivity and improved performance
• Simplified and effective documentation
• Greater audit and surveillance efficiency
While ISO 22000 can be implemented on its own, it is designed to be fully compatible with ISO 9001. Companies already certified to ISO 9001 will find it easy to extend this certification to include ISO 22000. To help users to do so, ISO 22000 includes a table showing the correspondence of its requirements with those of ISO 9001.
ISO 9001 is a standard that can be audited, providing certification and respect for the company involved. Food service firms can use ISO 9001 and ISO 22000 together – or extend their existing 9001 system – to meet these food safety requirements. ISO 22000 is structured in accordance with the ten clauses of ISO 9001. It is international, and can be used by any company within the entire food chain for certification and registration.
Additional information on ISO 22000 can be found in the ISO Catalogue in the ISO Store at http://www.iso.org. The standard includes additional documents, such as:
• ISO/TS 22004, Food safety management systems – Guidance on the application of ISO 22000:2005. This provides important guidance that can assist small and medium-sized food enterprises around the world.
• ISO/TS 22003, Food safety management systems – Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of food safety management systems. This will provide rules forauditing a food safety management system and guide registrars that intend to perform ISO 22000 audits. It will be published in the first quarter of 2006.
• ISO 22005, Traceability in the feed and food chain – General principles and guidance for system design and development. This will be circulated as a Draft International Standard.
• In partnership with the International Trade Centre (ITC) – the technical cooperation agency of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) – ISO is also preparing an easy-to-use check-list for small businesses and developing countries, entitled ISO 22000: Are you ready?
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic approach to identifying and controlling hazards (i.e. microbiological, chemical or physical) that could pose a danger to the preparation of safe food. HACCP involves:
• identifying what can go wrong
• planning to prevent it
• making sure you are doing it.
In simple terms, it involves controlling the safety of ingredients and supplies coming into a food business and what is done with them thereafter.
Since 1998 it has been a legal requirement for all food businesses to have a food safety management system based on the principles of HACCP.
Meeting this requirement can be achieved in a number of ways that best suits the business. This will range from the food business operator:
• Developing a formal HACCP system or
• Following a recognised industry guide to good practice
• In the case of a business undertaking simple food operations (e.g. service of prepackaged food) the correct implementation of the prerequisite hygiene requirements may be sufficient to control all hazards.
• Framework – for establishing, implementing and demonstrating an robust Food safety management system
• Customer satisfaction – through delivery of products that consistently meet customer requirements including quality, safety and legality
• Reduced operating costs – by reducing risk of financial penalties caused by product recall
and thereby ensuring safe food delivery
• Legal compliance – Ensures that your organization complies with statutory, regulatory and
• Operational efficiency – Enhances operational efficiencies by adopting proactive approach through means of Hazard identification, defining and monitoring of critical control limits, product traceability, verification and validation of product and control of nonconformities in sync with HACCP plans there by increasing the effectiveness of your overall food safety management system.
• Ability to win more business – particularly where procurement specifications require certification as a condition to supply.
GMP or PRP (Prerequisite Programe) is for those who are committed to food safety and FSMS standards such as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) and ISO 22000. GMP is an absolute essential as it provides the foundation for the development and implementation of successful Food Safety Management Systems (FSMS) as well as an assurance of food safety.
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) includes many basic operational conditions and procedures that are required to be met by the food business. These can include the following:
• The construction and layout of the food premises
• The training provided to the employees
• The adequate maintenance of equipment and utensils used within the company
• The use of suitable chemicals within and around the food premises including cleaning chemicals, pest control chemicals and machine lubricants
• The identification and storage of waste within and by the company
• The implementation and effectiveness of the traceability system
• The cleanliness of the food premises, equipment, utensils, floors, walls and ceilings.
• An effective pest control program
GMP certification offers, among others, the following benefits:
• Costs reduced and resources saved
• Evidence of safe and efficient food handling
• Compliance with legal requirements and builds customer trust
• Ability to trade internationally
• Food culture within your company
• Reduction of claims, returns, reprocesses and rejections